Wednesday 17th September 1851
Our trip to the diggings commenced, by Durham and I setting off for Parramatta at 10 minutes past 12 noon by the Steamer, where we arrived at 20minutes past 2 the distance being 15 miles. We found Charley (who had been sent out of Sydney with the cart the night before) waiting for us, with the pleasant news
“That we should have to get the tires of both wheels cut … the heat of Sydney has caused the wood to shrink, and they’re both coming off”
Here was a pretty go, our first mishap only 15 miles from Sydney, just by way of a taste of what might be in store for us, without loss of time we started off to Coleman (a wheelwright) who on inspection said he would not have our wheels at a [gift & etc], this all in the way of [treads]; but the man was quite right, the heat had shrunk the wood to that degree, that the wheels weren’t worth a curse; he luckily had a pair of new ones by him which just fitted our cart, these ones took and paid (five pounds) for; at half past 4pm and left Parramatta, and camped out a mile and a half from the town, ready for a good start in the morning.
Got up at half past 5 and started from our first camp at 20mins past 8, got to Penrith 16 or 17 miles off about 6 in the evening, but were too late to get a place in the punt for crossing the Nepean that night, consequently we went back for a quarter of a mile and camped in a field with capital feed in it; soon after tea, one of our horses which had not been well for 3 days, we found was getting worse (more luck) so we determined if he was no better next day, we would not go on, but give him a dose and a day’s rest —-
The Horse much the same, got a dose for him at Penrith, which has just been given him if he gets better towards the afternoon, we intend crossing the Nepean and camping 2 miles on the other side — 4pm the horse much better, but not well enough to start.
The horse well, but rather weak, started from our camp at 8am got over Lapstone hill with some difficulty we are beginning to find the strongest of our horses is a confounded jib, he trys his breeching, directly there is any hard rock, we only went 9 1/2 miles today as our youngest horse Farmer (Dick is the name of the jib) is still weak, and camped at James’ Public House; Durham, Charley and I went down to a small creek and had a real good wash all over, a comfort only to be appreciated by walking over dusty roads good part of a day, there was not sufficient water in the creek for a swim that would have been too great a luxury —-
Sunday 21st Sept
Left the camp at 10mins to 8, Dick began jibbing immediately in front of the Public House, and at the end of our days journey jibbed awfully in going up a Sandy Hill, called Wilsons Hill, close to Wilsons Public, 11 1/2 miles from where we started and 21 from Penrith, however as there was a party we knew (Fred Foster’s) in front of us, by their assistance we partly shoved and Farmer doing his best, partly dragged the cart up the hill and we camped 200 yards from the Public; our load is as nearly as we can tell 17cwt, more or less rather too much for two horses, where one so often jibes, and also taking into account the extremely sandy pinches in different parts of the road, hitherto almost all the road has been excellent, but we are told that now the road begins to be bad ——————
On starting this morning, our brute of a horse jibbed again; we managed to get him part of the way up a low long sandy hill, when again he came to a stand, and this time devil a bit, would he budge, neither the whip (and by jove he got plenty of it) nor coaching would make him move so at last it was determined that C. would ride this confounded brute to his Father’s at Bong Bong (which by a near out, across from Penrith to Camden is about 120 miles off) and bring another horse, a remarkably fine one called Captain, and that we should go to our last camping place only 1/4 of a mile off, and wait his coming, we expected him to be away 6 days, so we made ourselves as comfortable as we could, put Farmer in Wilson’s paddock, repacked our dray, as the weight was rather too much behind and then D.and I went down to a creek and had a good wash, this was in the afternoon, on our return, we found, in spite of our man John’s remonstrances, our camp fire occupied by a lot of blackguards who were going to the diggings, there they were, perfectly at home all their pots on and taking up the whole of our fire, and lying all around it; this was rather too much, we had to go a long way for wood, and these rascals were too lazy to make a fire for themselves, as soon as their tea was boiled, they moved off a short distance leaving an immense potion which took up nearly the whole of our fire, so I went and told one of them, not in the most measured terms or gentlest manner, that if one of them did not soon take it off I would for them, consequently in five minutes one of them walked off with it, and we were troubled with them very little more except by hearing very beautiful and complimentary remarks, made about us, which we treated with the contempt they deserved; it was not worth while quarrelling with such brutes. D. told them soon after I spoke, that were were not going to cut wood for them, and as one of them had been abusing the fire (merely for the sake of provocation) that if the fire was not good enough we did not want him at it, as we only made it for ourselves; these brutes are in the habit of “chumming up” as they call it, with each other, on the road, and going to the one who has first fire, this you may be sure we did not want, neither did we want to gross remarks and abominable familiarity such “chumming up” entails upon us —-
D and I went down to the valley above which we were camped, and found 3 trickling waterfalls any of which would afford a beautiful shower bath, the first had a fall of about 10ft, the second of 3 ft and the third of about 30 ft, this last fell into a beautiful dell completely surrounded on three sides with high rocky cliffs, and the fourth side by which it had vent, was a large deep rocky gully a continuation of the valley above which we were camped, we had just had a bathe, so made up our minds to have a showerbath there tomorrow, the county here is very wild, we are in part of the blue-mountains; on our return we found C. with a lot of men round our fire, one or two of them were his Fathers tenants and all neighbours, it appears he had met them at the Punt at Penrith, and they would not for a moment hear of his going home for a horse, one of them called McFadgeon offered to lend him a capital horse and take Dick in exchange ’till we got to Bathurst, this he gladly acceded to. D.andI instantly got dinner, packed up our traps, harnessed the horses, and all set off together we are now in all three teams so no hills can stop us, our exchanged horse pulls capitally, and even Dick who is now placed in the shafts of McFadgeons dray behind two good horses, is obliged to pull, he appears to have given up jibbing for the present, and pulls as well as could be wished; on our road this afternoon we passed about 1 1/2miles from one of those places I have so often heard of, where on of the Mountains appears to have been cut in two, to the depths of between 500 and 1000 ft by some convulsions of nature; the sold rock rises to about that height nearly perpendicular, and even at a distance looks rather grand, we were too far off, and besides had not time to visit this place which I should much like to have done, I have heard of one of these places 2000ft in height, tonight we are camped at a placed called the Weatherboards 4 1/2 miles from where we started at 2pm today.
Left our Camp a little after 7am all day passing through very fine scenery, saw several of those immense perpendicular walls of Rock, and ended with going down Mount Victoria the descent of which is about 2 miles, from this mountain you have a splendid view, the road down it is so steep, you have to fasten a skid to the wheels and hang on behind to prevent your dray going down to fast,.We camped at the bottom about 3 miles from Hartley.
Passing through very fine scenery all day, camped in a beautiful spot, with perpendicular rocks towering 300 ft above us immediately in front of our Camp. D.,C., and I as usual when we were able to do so, went down to the Creek and indulged in a bathe – P.S. at 11 this morning passed the Town? of Hartley consisting of some eight or ten houses!—
Left the Camp in good time, crossed some high long hills, heavy pulling for the horses and finally came down Mount Lambie, got of of the Blue Mountains, and camped 3 or 4 miles from the foot of them —–
Road tolerably level; in the morning passed a small place where Oranges were to be sold, D.and I went to ask what was the price of them, a dirty fat woman who was washing, wiped her hands and said some 1, and some 1 1/2 they were miserable looking ones scarcely as large as apricots and all shrivelly, so without taking any we moved off and before getting out of hearing were told “You’ll get plenty when you come back with plenty of Nuggets, you “d…..d rascals”, so much for the civility of the Australian lower classes the second or third specimen we had received of it on the road —- Today we turned off for the Turon determining to go there first, in crossing a small creek 2 miles from the Green Swamp, where we turned off, Dick, our shaft horse (for we had just got him back from McFadgeon) made a leap, dragged the cart after him and upset it on the opposite bank, luckily scarcely any damage was done; and as we were at the place where we intended to camp, we quietly unloaded the dray, reloaded it, and made ourselves perfectly comfortable, determining to rest the horses the whole of the next day (Sunday). D.and I made up our minds to walk into Bathurst to post letters etc. We are now 14 miles from there and 28 from the Turon —- (crosswritten) At the bottom of the hill today a few miles from the Green Swamp, we passed a fallen tree lying on four horses; they had been crushed to death; on a windy day a short time ago, a man left them at the bottom of the hill while he went to the top to speak to someone, he was away only a few minutes, and on his return he found them all quite dead, and horribly crushed by a large tree.
D. and I started from the Camp at 20 minutes to 3pm walked into Bathurst a distance of 14 miles in 3 hours and 20 minutes, and were much pleased with the town it seems to be rather larger than Goulburn and much more compact, it is difficult to judge of the relative sizes of the places, Goulburn appears to be more of an oblong shape Bathurst more of a square. McIntosh, a friend of D’s was out of Town, but expected in at night. Went to the Royal Hotel (not as good as the hotel of the same name and Maudlesohn’s (sp?) in Gouldburn), met with Johnson the commissioner, first had some brandy and water, then ordered tea, at which meal, we two (D.&I) managed to dispose of a Dish of Chops, ditto of Ham & Eggs, 1/3 of a loaf of bread, 5 or 6 cups of tea each, besides sugar, milk and butter, proving that a sharp walk of 14 miles, though good for the health is not much to the benefit of the Inn you stop at, where there is a fixed charge for each meal. We both of us had thought of being ashamed of our selves, and were rather afraid of being charged double. Soon after tea McIntosh came in, from him we heard the last news from the Turon and the other diggings, then finished the letters we were engaged writing on his entry and went to bed.
Finished the little business we had to do, by 25mins past 11 and set off to walk to the Turon, by a road we were told would lead on to the one from the green swamp, stopped in the middle of the day to eat some dinner we brought with us, walked till 7 o’clock but could not meet with the drays. Crossed Wiagdon Hill, with about as wretched a road over it as there is in the Colony, it is a high steep hill covered with stones, and where the road passes over it, is, what is called “sidling”, came up with some drays but not our won, and decided on going no farther, erected a Gunyah close to one of their fires, and put in plenty of leaves for a bed, this was nothing and only what one might expect now and then, travelling in the Bush; but we could get no water and were parched with thirst, the men belonging with the drays got their half a mile off, down a steep gully and it was now too dark to get any, so we were obliged to go to sleep as we were, or I should say to our Gunyah, sleep was out of the question devil a bit could not get any for the cold; we were in and out first in the Gunyah then at the fire nearly the whole night, towards the morning I got quite worn out, and threw myslef down beside the fire, with my head on my arm and the sky for a covering and fell fast asleep…
Woke soon after rise, when Kelly (who owned one of the drays) gave us a pannikin of tea and some biscuit, which put us all to rights, we neither of us caught the least cold or new the least stiff or in any way the worse for our rough night’s lodging . We were now only 7 mile from the Turon having walked 21 the day before; we arrived at the diggings at nine a.m. found out Thompson who took us to his tent and gave us a good breakfast. D. went back with him to the P.Office, while I remained in the tent on account of having blistered feet caused by foolishly having nails put in my boots; which I have found out is the worst plan possible, when you have to walk day after day for several days together; mine had been blistered for the last 5 days, at night we had good beds with a nice tent to cover us which for my part and I think D. too made the most of, repaying ourselves in a great measure for our bad lodgings of the previous night.
Wednesday 1st October
Went with D. to the post office to look for Charley, examined some of the excavations as we passed along; this certainly is a most extraordinary place, some of the holes are carried to a great depth, 12, 20, 30, ay & even 40 or 50ft, while some are tunneled a great way into the bank, all the people here who are doing at all well are very civil, and will show you their gold as they get it out of their cradles, answer questions tote (sp?)_the accounts in the papers I consider to be a good deal exaggerated, some few here are making fortunes, some doing well, some only paying their expenses, and very many scarcely doing anything at all; on arrival at the P.O. we ere told that C. had been there for us, in a few minutes we found him, and went out to our dray camped 2 miles from the Township of Sofala on the Turon Hills; it seems they had taken a road called the LimeKiln road, after they left the Green Swamp, thus accounting for our missing them. In the afternoon for amusement we went down to the Creek below the Camp, prospecting, and C. was lucky enough to find 3 or 4 spangles of gold; even on the tops of the hills about the Turon you can find gold in small quantities they (the hills) are mostly of a reddish colour, like our Ironstone Country, and some of it a yellowish brown, covered with Blue Gum and Box trees (with the latter particularly on the side of the hills sloping towards the River,) stringy bark and common gum but not nearly so plentiful as the other two; and the banks, or more properly the flat of the River with large oak trees; the stones on the Hills appear principally or certainly in a great proportion to be of a Schistose formation (this term is applied to any rocks that have cleavage) and now and then of Igneous origin or at any rate, bare as far as my poor judgement can guide me, marked traces of fire, and what is an extraordinary feature is that Quartz is by no means plentiful; on the flat of the the River the stones are in great number and appear to be principally trap and some kind of Winstone, also lots of bluish kind of stones with a vein of quartz running through them, very much waterworn, the vein where the gold is found in the bank diggings appears to be a
yellowish gravelly clay greenish loose kind of clay but in some parts it is of a dark brown colour, a regular mass of concrete with large stones imbedded in it, in some of the diggings on the hills the washable stuff is different being a light coloured loose earth with many water worn stones amongst it, this latter kind appears to wash very easily; whether you get a good claim or a bad one seems to be, in fact people say, entirely a lottery, geological knowledge and indications are of very little use, some of the richest claims are in places where scientific men would suppose gold could not be found except in small quantities, and in some few cases the best claims are where people stuck in their shovels in their despair of getting any others place to work in….
Got our dray down to the river, the hills so steep we were obliged to use a skid and a drag and in some places so sidling as to oblige us to hold on by ropes to the upper side of the dray to prevent its being capsized. Pitched our tent close to Thompsons 1 1/2miles (1.5miles ed.) from the P.O….
Spent the day in making a tent of our tarpaulin to keep our stores, provisions in & @…
Looking about the river for a claim fixed upon one close to Ellis’s 1/2 mile from here; his claim is on the side of a sloping hill, in 5 weeks he has turned out 452ozs, this is an immense quantity, he is one who took his claim entirely on chance and for want of knowing a better; it is now one of the very best on the River, so good that some of his neighbours in the night used to go and take the earth from it, he found it out, and said if any one went to his claim again in the night, he would take him for a ghost and shoot him, since then he has not been troubled with any more of these ruffians.
Nearly the whole of the day in the tent writing up this journal to today, from notes I had taken previously. Ellis dined with us – a warm windy day …
Went and opened our claim but were obliged to leave off at one o’clock on account of it coming on to rain; so went to our tent and added some small improvements to the slanting board of the cradle, while John & C. made two grooves for it to rock in.
A very wet day, all hands reading and in the Tent, cleared up a little in the afternoon. The River a little higher than yesterday.
Worked the claim nearly the whole day, washed a little of the top stuff but only 3 grs Troy out of it.
(side note) A large black snake killed in the tent.
Working at the claim in the morning, obliged to knock off at 11 as it commenced to rain hard; no one at the cradle, as it requires 1/2 an oz to make it with washing, perdium.
Went to work at the claim, but obliged to leave off at 11 on account of the rain which came down in torrents, it cleared up in the afternoon. D., C. and I went to the township to try and get letters; none for us.
Left our first hole as there was nothing in it, worked lower down in the claim, but only got the dirt out; down to the bed rock only 2 ft below the surface.
Writing nearly all morning, went to Sofala in the afternoon, with Galbraith to post letters.
Working hard all day, got nothing to speak of out of the part of the claim we were working in the morning, so changed to another part of it a little higher up, and by night had got a hole of 3ft sunk.
Got down to the washable stuff by 10 o’clock a.m. but out of several buckets full only obtained a very few specks; gave it up and went to a partly begun hole, 30 years to the left of our first claim; passed 25 buckets of earth through the cradle in the afternoon; only a few specks again.
Working at the hole all day, undermined a tree, and passed a few buckets of earth through the cradle with the usual luck.
Removed the trunk and root of the tree from over our hole, and took off a large quantity of red clay and earth and got the claim ready for cradling; some of our neighbours tried to encroach most of them round us thinking from the colour of the earth and other signs that we are in a good place; as yesterday, the party in the hole nearest us got 24ozs, within a
mere trifle dwk or two.
Working hard all day with our usual luck, we are beginning to get puzzled as to the whereabouts of the gold vein, all tell us they are certain we shall find plenty of gold in some part of our claim, but the difficulty seems to be, where that plenty is …
Working all day, at right angles to where we were working yesterday, in hopes of striking (by Monday) right across the vein and then following it up, had our dispute (with some sailors who are working above us) settled by the commissioner Mr King, and got about 4 yards more ground allotted to us that they wanted, before dinner today, the men who are working the claim next to us, got 16 1/2 oz; they will have got nearly 2 1/2lbs weight by the evening, more I believe than has been got out of any dry digging before on the Turon.
Went to Sofala to post letters.
Working at the claim all day at 4 in the afternoon (after trying several bags of earth at different times in the day) we suddenly got to some different stuff; sent down 2 buckets of it to the cradle to be tried and got out of it 2 dwts thinking we had struck the vein at last, we sent down 2 buckets more and again got bout 2 dwts … which was given to Galbraith as was tried in his cradle.
C. and Galbraith went before breakfast to the claim to get some earth ready for washing; today 22 buckets of the washable stuff were passed through each cradle; being all we had ready; our yeild was 1.7.12 (1oz7dwts12grs); this is considered a large quantity out of so little earth; in the afternoon we began cutting away some more of our claim in order to reach the vein, having only just got to a very small portion of it in one corner, and which only took us about an hour and half to wash . PS. today we found several specimens of gold in Iron stone, slate, etc and also imbedded in hard dark brown clay, bearing the appearance of having been at one time exposed to the action of fire; these specimens were got out of the hopper of the cradle, after the earth had been washed off them.
Went on clearing and scraping the rocks, as far as the claim was opened, passed 35 buckets though the cradle, this was not at all good stuff and we only got 3dwts12grms. Todd, Spry and Terry arrived today.
Cleared off some more of the claim, at the shallow end, where the rock is only from 1 foot to 18 inches below the surface; this was no good; washed 21 buckets of soil scraped from the crevices and pockets of the rock at the other end and got 11 dwts12grms.
Washed some of the soil (8 buckets) of what we cleared yesterday from the upper end of the claim; this was totally useless stuff consequently our yield was nil.
Working hard clearing off a third part of the claim, at the deep end, close to where we got the rich earth on Tuesday; obliged to go home in the afternoon by having a head ache.
Writing home in the morning, in the afternoon walked to Sofala.
Working hard at the claim all day, cutting down, at the deep end.
Raining hard nearly all day, no work done.
Working all day, at the deep end of the claim, and lost a great deal of time by having to build up the wall again, which we had made to keep the earth, thrown out, from falling back again; and which had given way on account of last night’s rain.
Cut down some more of the claim; in the afternoon washed 31 buckets of earth and got out of it 3ozs,4dwts, 22grs.
Passed 56 buckets of soil through the cradle, our yield was 2oz,7dwts,22grs – this was for the greater part only indifferent stuff, but some of it was very good.
Saturday, 1st November
Licence day. D.got to his cradle late, on account of that and of there being a good deal of rain in the afternoon with two heavy squalls. We only washed 38 buckets of soil, which yielded 1 oz,7dwts,19grs.
Writing and reading all day.
Cutting out and pounding stuff for washing sufficient for the two next days.
Washed 56 buckets of soil which yielded 16dwts5grs. Terry, Todd and Spry left
Washed 74 buckets which yielded 12dwts6grs. opened a claim opposite Golden Point
cutting out sufficient for the two next days, at 2pm I was obliged to go home owing to a slight attack of diarrhoea.
washed 94 buckets which yielded 18dwts
An awfully hot day, carrying down bags of earth in the morning, washed 63 buckets in the afternoon which yielded 14dwts9grs.
Writing a letter in the morning; went to Sofala in the afternoon.
A very wet day; at the claim only for about an hour in the afternoon. Received a letter from home and answered it.
Cutting out soil in the morning, washed 47 buckets which yielded 1oz7grs
Clearing off some more of the upper end of the claim, David Galbraith meantime looking about for some new claims, and bought four at sheep station point for only 20pounds – the party who had been working them having quarreled was the cause of their getting them so cheap (Dry diggings)
Working at the new claims, washed upward of 40 buckets and only got 2dwts 3grs; the party of whom we bought the claim considered the part they had opened (not above a fourth) to be nearly worked out.
Washed 75 buckets from the new claim which yielded 1.9dwts. The gold from this hole is very fine, and in some places stones were picked out covered with specks. Two of our party were working at the old claim today.
Raining heavily in the morning till 11o’clock. Helped Galbraith and C to move to our new claim as it was necessary some of us should be there.
Reading all day
Washed 90 buckets of earth which yielded 13dwts. We also got a nugget weighing 7dwts 12grs making 1oz 12grs total. The nugget Durham picked up in the hole.
Cutting out washable stuff all day, hired 2 men to commence working tomorrow morning, bought Dr Sherwin’s claim which he was kind enough to offer Durham for 100 pounds to be delivered next Monday – it is one of the best on the Turon, a bed and bank claim on Golden Bar. He was obliged to leave or he would not have sold it. Gave Foillard notice to quit Bangalore, enclosed in a letter to Tom Gibson.
Durham and I went to the claim on Thomson’s hill (the old one) and found that M & D had scarcely done anything; tried some of what they had ready which was no good. Washing at sheep station point included in next day’s work.
Tunnelling and washing at sheep station point. Yesterday’s and today’s work, conjointly amounts to 1oz 1 dwt 17grs.
clearing off all day. C picking and clearing the rock.
M and I finished the old claim washed 46 buckets which yielded 12dwts 19grs and from sheep station point 8dwts 23grs washed by the others (1oz 1dwt 18grs total); the new clearing off in the meantime.
Writing and reading all day.
Clearing off all day at Sherwin’s claim and sheep station point.
Clearing off all day at sheep station point, discharged the 2 men we hired, having had them a week. At Sherwin’s claim they were washing and go 2oz 11dwts 11grs.
Cutting down at sheep station point, and washing at Sherwin’s claim yeild 1oz 4dwts 9grs.
washing at both claims, Sherwin’s yielding 18dwts 23grs; sheep station gold not brought home – to be included in tomorrow’s work.
Durham and Galbraith found or rather took out some new claims 4miles up the river.
washing at Sherwin’s claim and sheep station point, only one working cradle at the former which yielded 1oz 3dwts 18grs and two days work at the latter yielding 15dwts 10grs.
Helping Galbraith to remove from sheep station point to the new claims, our own men at Sherwin’s clearing out the …. (river?)
Reading and writing all day
December 1st, Monday
sank to the bedrock at Golden Bar to see if there was gold on it, but there was not sufficient to pay.
Clearing off the bank of the claim at Golden Bar
A very wet day cleared up in the afternoon just long enough to allow D. and I to go and see Galbraith up the river.
The men clearing off at Golden Bar, while D. & I went to sheep station point.
Washing at Golden Bay, with one cradle in the morning and 2 in the afternoon. Got 1..4..15
The river very high owing to the rain in the back country, today Sherwin Claim yielded 1..15..19 and the week’s work from sheep station was 4..9..12
Had a beautiful bathe in the morning before breakfast, reading and writing the rest of the day.
From the Golden Bar claim today we got 17..13 C. clearing off at sheep station point.
From the Golden Bar claim only 15..4
From Golden Bar 1..0..16; for the last days the bank has been turning out so badly, we have determined not to try the upper part of the bed and tomorrow (having borrowed a pump) we are going to prepare a partly opened hole for working as soon as possible, the stuff we washed today was the best we could get out, and this has scarcely given us a decent return.
Got the pump into the hole, but could not make use of it on account of the pump wanting clamps, to prevent it bursting.
Got the pump in working order, but could not get the hole cleared out on account of the other claims being so full of water, and no-one else to join with us in emptying them.
Washing with 2 cradles in the morning and with one in the afternoon, yield 13dts.5grs. Charley has been clearing off at sheep station nearly all the week, and from there he only brings us for 2 days work 1.5.12. Greenaway who works the next claim to us at Golden Bar got his pump in today all ready for a fair start with us on Monday. Our head man tried another claim, a deserted one, on the hill a little farther up the river than Trappit’s store, but with only poor success, however if we can keep it he is to try it again next Monday.
Reading and writing in the morning, took a walk in the afternoon with Durham and Galbraith up Oakey Creek.
Had a hard struggle in the morning to try and pump the water out of our hole, but could not manage it, as it came in as fast as it was pumped out.
Trying the new hole we took possession of 2 or 3 days ago, but got very little indeed, our overseer picked up a small nugget of between 2 & 3dwts which Durham gave to him. The hole up the river deserted, no good.
Tried the water claim again and managed pretty easily, obliged to leave off in the afternoon, on account of having nothing to put round the bottom of the pump to keep it from sucking up the gravel.
At the pump again, saw several specks of gold, tried a quarter of a trio dish full of yellowish green clay from the bottom of the hole, and got 5grs weight out of it. This is very rich and I have no doubt we shall yet do well out of it; we had a thunderstorm in the afternoon and big Oakey & little Oakey Creek came down with fearful rapidity causing the river to rise higher than it has been yet, and carrying away lots of cradles, three men, a woman & child were drowned in little Oakey, the body of one, a Captain Robinson was found in the evening, one at Sheepstation point next morning and the others are still missing (& I am writing this on the 21st).
The river down nearly as low as ever, little Oakey Creek having ceased running, and big Oakey lowering very fast, in fact last night at 6 o’clock the river had fallen nearly 2 ft. Today we were trying the claim on Trappits hill but got nothing to signify.
Our three men opening another hole just above the one on Trappits hill. The river lower than ever, but we can not yet work our bed, as the holes round about are rather too full – wrote to Dwyer of Bungendore about 3 of our horses being pounded there, but am afraid too late to save them being sold. Had an awful attack of rheumatism in both shoulders at night, never was in such pain before.
Reading and writing all day.
Working the bed of the claim, lots of gold to be seen, but the water rushed in so fast as to render it impossible to get much of the gold out. I tried 3/4 of a tin dish full of soil and got between 2 & 3dwts; we washed with our cradle in the afternoon but only got between 13 & 14dwts.
Getting out as much stuff as possible to be able to wash the whole of tomorrow; plenty of gold to be seen, but not able to get more than a fourth of it out on account of the great rush of water; we and the men as well were very tired at night owing to the fearful hard work, four of us had been pumping from 7 in the morning till 7 in the evening; pumping is most fearful work, at least with such a huge pump as we have. Two men must be constantly at it, if you leave off for a minute the water begins to gain on you, and as soon as one couple are tired the other 2 have to take their places, thus changing backwards & forwards between 2 couples nearly all day, whilst the others are in the hole getting out soil.
Washing what we got out yesterday but only got between 13 & 14dwts, this is from the bottom vein below the blue clay & on the bed rock, the labour is so awfully great to get at it that we have determined on trying to work the vein above the blue clay; the ground is so full of water that it is perfect waste to work the bottom of our bed at present,
Thursday 25th Christmas Day
Reading all day.
The men employed in clearing off a new piece in order to work the top vein.
Owing to a thunderstorm in the night the … [?river] was several inches higher in the morning, found it useless to attempt working even the top vein with the water as it is at present, left off pumping for good ’till our neighbours should join in. Set the men to work to clear off the part nearest the bank that is unopened.
Reading and writing all day.
Found that the part the men were opening on Saturday was no good; so we walked into the bank part of Turley Jones’s claim, next to us on the right hand. They had not worked it for upwards of 3 weeks, and 10days is the longest time a claim may be kept possession of untouched. One of the commissioners was called in and he decided in our favour, so the men went to work to clear off.
The men clearing off at Jones’s claim (that was).
After being puzzled a good deal to find what the gold vein was, and how deep we had to go to it, we struck it in the afternoon and washed about 30 buckets which yielded 7dwts.16grs. – today our mutual agreement expires.
Thursday 1st January, 1852
New Years Day, consequently a holy day with us & the men too, went to see some races on the flat above Sofala.
Washing at Jones’s claim and got 1oz.8dwt.18grs, read a rumour in the Herald of a nugget being found on Maneroo wg 22oz…
From Jones’s claim we got for this my last day on the Turon 1oz.9dwts.5grs. Durham and I made up our minds some days ago to leave on Sunday the 4th – Charley to be left Superintendent – and walk by Razor back to Sydney on to Parramatta and take the Steamer from there.
Durham and I left the Turon on foot this morning a little before 7 and walked to Keenan’s which instead of being as we expected 28 miles from Sofala was 35. We thus walked (as our tent is a mile nearer than the township 34 instead of 27 miles to the detriment of my feet which were fearfully sore at night.
Set off at 6 in the morning from Keenan’s intending to walk to Hartley, but owing to my feet being so fearfully sore and blistered I could only walk to McCoy’s a public house 15 miles from Keenans. Durham left me here and walked on by himself. He was very leg-weary and intended to take the coach from Hartley on [?to] Penrith if could manage to walk as far.
Left McCoys early in the morning with the purpose of walking to Hartley to meet the Mail at noon, but owing to my feet getting sorer I could only reach Waltons public house 8 1/2miles from Mc Coys – a coach happened to come there at 10o’clock from Hartley and returned at 2, so I got a seat in it to that place 10 or 12 miles from Waltons.
[?The] Escort day from the Turon, no passengers allowed in the Mail, but Kendall at whose public house I was at, happened to have a fine Team nearly empty going to Sydney so I was offered a place in it to Penrith from whence I could reach Sydney either per Mail or Coach. Went to Weatherboards public house on our days journey 23 miles from Hartley. I travelled very comfortably that whole day, sitting or lying down at pleasure on some Hay covered with a white canvas Tarpaulin.
Left the Weatherboards at 6 in the morning and the dray left me that night at Penrith 25 miles from where I started. I took my place in the Coach for Sydney, unfortunately my bedroom was a double bedded one, and I was awoke after being two hours in bed by some more people being shown in, this was not enough, 3 persons in a small bedroom, they wanted to put some fellow in bed with me which I would not listen to for a minute.
Left Penrith at 5 in the morning and arrived at the Glebe at 10, changed my things & got into Sydney at 1/4 to 12 thus finishing my journey from the Turon & also my first gold-digging trip.
24th January 1852.
Description of claim on Thompsons hill.
The first layer of soil (though dug up by the people who had the claim first and who took a considerable quantity of gold out of it) consisted of a light loose earth; the 2nd at which we commenced, was a stiff red clay, & the 3rd hard yellowish gravelly clay, intermixed with large stones much water worn, and large pieces of round rotten peastone, right down to the washable stuff, which was a yellowish dusty kind of earth with a thin coating of Iron stone above it with stones intermixed, looking as if it had been melted together, and in which we often found gold – bed rock, a light blue slated kind of schist, easily chipped up, a little gold sometimes in it. Gold very coarse and junkey and of a deep rich colour with little pieces of Iron stone often sticking to it. Sometimes gold itself found in the Iron stone – sunk on the side of a hill, depth at the deep end between 9 & 10feet.
Description of claim on Sheepstation point hill.
1st layer, light loose earth, yellowish white colour
2nd red clay
3rd extremely hard, light coloured clay, with stones intermixed water washed
4th a very curious layer – I scarcely know how to describe it, very easily worked; chipped up quite dry and dusty, in good sized pieces, appeared to be a cross breed between clay and rotten free stone, and of a pale dirty yellow colour.
5th layer Red gravel, with large water washed stones mixed with it, at the bottom of this layer gold was found, but in greater quantities in the cracks at the rock in a soft red clay, and on top of the rock in a thin coating of light greenish earth apparently part of the rock much decomposed Red Rock; what I understand to be Gneis ie. a soft greenish kind of Granite, with lots of black spots in it like little pieces of coal, to the depth of a foot it is easily chipped up and pounded. Gold, very fine like river gold; with an occasional nugget out of the last gravelly layer. Nuggets have been formed in some of the claims on this hill of 2&3lbs weight Troy, they are now and then knocked out of the red gravel in the same way that a stone is – situation of claim, platform of a hill, distance from the water about 200 years – depth from 8 to 10 feet
Description of Bank and red claim at Golden Bar
Bank first – Alluvial soil at the top soft and easy to work of a dear brown colour gradually got harder, lighter and more clayey till it reached the washing stuff which was very hard dark clayey kind of soil with large water washed stones amongst it, the bottom of this nearly on a level with the river was dark brown loose gravel; the bed rock (which by way of trial we sunk to, though the washable stuff of any good ended 3ft above it) was light blue slate schist exactly like the rock on Thompson’s hill – gold, very bright and beautiful but very fine – Depth 10 to 11ft to the end of washing stuff, 13 or 14 to bed rock.
Bed part of the claim –
Nothing but loose rubble to sink to till the washing stuff was reached, which was much the same as the upper stuff only harder and of a dark brown colour; after this, a vein of blue clay with very little gold in it & after this some light yellowish brown loamy kind of rubble with a good deal of gold in it; immediately on the bed rock; which latter was just the same as the bed rock on Thompson’s hill (at least in our claim) ie. light blue schist easily chipped up; just on top of this last vein there were lots of very large stones …